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Lignin Chelated Micro Nutrients

The Importance, effect and profitable use for productive agriculture

COBALT (Component of TNN Pasture Sprays)

An extremely important, coenzyme, Vitamin B12, is synthesised by rumen microbes from dietary cobalt.Vitamin B12 coenzyme is required by methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the major metabolic pathways through which propionate and several amino acids are metabolised.Propionate, derived from fermentation of plant cellulose in the rumen, is the major source of energy in the ruminants.

Advantages of Cobalt Application

Cobalt application can enhance the nitrogen fixation ability within legumes.Cobalt application can improve the efficiency of ruminal digestion and in turn increase the digestible energy of plant species.

Cobalt Deficiency Symptoms

PLANTS – a major indication of cobalt deficiency is small root nodules on legumes species.The major symptoms are nitrogen related symptoms, hence distinguishing between cobalt and nitrogen deficiency is extremely difficult.

COPPER (Component of TNN Pasture Sprays)

Copper is involved in at least a dozen enzymes which catalyse oxidase type reactions in both plants and animals.Animal requirements of copper are much greater than those required for productive plant growth.In animals copper is required for body, bone and wool growth, for pigmentation, myelination of nerve fibres and leucocyte function.In plants, copper is required for photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism, cell wall structure, growth and seed set.

Advantages of Copper Application

Copper application can:

  • Enhance disease resistance in both plant and animal
  • Enhance photosynthesis and in turn increase digestible energy in plant species
  • Enhance legume nodulation, and in turn increases nitrogen fixation
  • Enhance seed or fruit yields
  • Enhance bone development, reproduction and lactation
Copper Deficiency Symptoms

PLANTS – symptoms include young leaves becoming dark green, twisted or misshapen, young leaves, necrotic spots, reduced seed production, white empty seed heads in grasses, delayed leaf senescence and die back diseases in orchards.

MANGANESE (Component of TNN Pasture Sprays)

Manganese is essential for health growth of plants and animals.Animals require manganese for growth, reproduction and skeletal growth, and also for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.The optimal requirement for plant growth is generally greater than the dietary requirement for animals.Manganese is essential for carbohydrate metabolism and the formation of fruit.Manganese is generally immobile, and often limiting in alkaline soils, where a high proportion of manganese is in insoluble forms.

Advantages of Manganese Application

Manganese application can enhance root growth, disease resistance and photosynthesis, hence improving the viability and productivity of pastures and crops.The manganese application also avoids growth retardation in plant species.

Manganese Deficiency Symptoms

PLANTS – symptoms can include:-(In cereals) greenish grey spots, flecks and stripes.(In legumes) interveinal chlorosis of young and middle aged leaves, yet this is not uniformly distributed over the whole leaf blade.Tissues may rapidly become necrotic and within legumes there can be seed disorders – “marsh spot” and “split seed”.

ZINC (Component of TNN Pasture Sprays)

Zinc is required for the function of a large number of enzymes and is essential for growth and reproduction in both plants and animals.Zinc plays a role in the formation of chlorophyll and stimulates plant growth.Zinc combines with other vitamins in the soil to form essential high grade protein.Zinc is involved in the plant hormone system and as a catalyst for plant growth regulators.

Advantages of Zinc Application

Zinc application can enhance disease resistance, reproductive expression, anaerobic root respiration and photosynthesis.

Zinc Deficiency Symptoms

PLANTS – symptoms in legume stands include shortened internode – “rosetting”, branching of small dark green abnormally-shaped leaves in the centre of the plant and decreased leaf expansion – “little leaf”.Within cereals and grasses, symptoms include chlorotic bands along the midrib or leaves combined with red, spot like discolouration, stunted growth and necrosis of older leaves.

IRON (Component of TNN Pasture Sprays)

Iron is essential in chlorophyll formation, photosynthesis and the transport of oxygen in the plant.It is relatively immobile, and is generally in short supply in alkaline soils.It is essential because it forms parts of certain enzyme and numerous proteins that carry electrons during photosynthesis and respiration.Iron is also essential in haemoglobin for oxygen transportation throughout the animal body.

Advantages of Iron Application

Iron application can:

  • Enhance photosynthetic activity and in turn increase digestible energy of plant species
  • It may also enhance root growth
  • Enhance disease resistance
  • Enhance legume nodulation
  • And in turn also increase digestible and nitrogen fixation
Iron Deficiency Symptoms

PLANTS – the major symptoms are interveinal chlorosis in young leaves, suppression of plant development, and white leaf with necrotic spots.

BORON (Component of TNN Pasture Sprays)

Boron is an essential nutrient for plants but not for animals.Boron is essential for root tip and pollen tube elongation, the synthesis of DNA and RNA and cell division in the shoot apex.

Boron is important for cell division and organization in the growth regions of the plant, that is, near the tips of shoots and roots.It has a hole in the metabolism of auxin, an important growth hormone, and is needed for moving sugars within the plant.Boron is required for pollination and the development of viable seeds.

Boron Deficiency Symptoms

PLANTS – the major symptoms include misshapen leaf blades, “stem crack” in celery, increased diameter of the stem and petiole, water soaked areas, tip burn, shorter internodal length, retarded growth of necrosis of the terminal buds and youngest leaves, brown or blackheart in heads of vegetable crops, reduction or failure of seed and fruit set, and malformation of fruit.

Tissues are brittle and crack or split easily.The surface of stems, petioles, or the midribs of leaves may become corky or crack, storage roots split, or stems develop hollow sections.Boron does not easily move around the plant, so deficiency symptoms first appear and are usually most acute in young tissues.The ends of shoots may become shortened (for example, umbrella shaped growth in lucerne), or strongly distorted (sunflower), or the growing point may die leading to multiple crowns (beet and sunflowers).Young leaves can develop yellow to orange tints (canola, lucerne), or red and purple coloration (clover), or the leaves may become distorted, thickened or leathery.Common but sometimes less noticed effects of boron deficiency include reduced flower numbers, low pollen production, poor seed set (clovers, lucerne, rapeseed), and sterile florets.Root injury or stunting can occur, but this often remains unseen in early deficiency.

Unlike other trace elements, boron is easily leached from the soil.Its availability to plants is also reduced during dry periods.Deficiency often develops when a long wet period is followed by a dry spell.Because plants require a small but continuous supply of boron from the soil, symptoms may suddenly appear even though the problem has not been seen for a number of years.Heavy liming also reduces boron uptake.

Advantages of Boron Application

Boron application can:

  • Enhance growing tissue and in turn promote new growth
  • Enhance plant structures
  • Increase oxygen transport through the plant
  • And also enhance the reproductive cycle, eventuating in improved seed set.
  • MOLYBDENUM (Component of TNN Pasture Sprays)

    Molybdenum is an essential element for both animal and plant.In plants, molybdenum is required for protein synthesis through nitrate reductase.Molybdenum is also an essential element for the fixation of nitrogen by the Rhizobium bacteria in legumes.In animals, molybdenum is essential in a number of important enzymes, the estrus cycle, animal fertility and mammary anti-carcinogenesis.

    Advantages of Molybdenum Application

    Molybdenum application can:

    • Enhance the nitrogen fixation ability within legumes
    • Enhance protein synthesis, thus increasing the plants, metabolizible energy
    • Enhances plant photosynthesis, thus increasing plant growth
    • Enhances the resistance against low temperature and waterlogging
    Molybdenum Deficiency Symptoms

    PLANTS – symptoms include tasselling, anthesis in maize, poor or delayed flowering, reduced viability of pollen tubes, reduced and irregular leaf blade formation known as “whiptail”, interveinal mottling and marginal chlorosis of the older leaves, followed by the necrotic spots at leaf tips and margins, smaller root nodules, nodules or white or green (instead of healthy pink) growth inhibition in legumes – yellow/pale leaves and reddish stem.

    SELENIUM (Component of TNN Pasture Sprays)

    Selenium is an essential element for animals, but not plants.Selenium is essential for animal growth and also for the prevention of white muscle disease.Selenium also plays an important role in the disease resistance mechanism, being involved in the production of antibodies and the killing of unwanted micro-organisms.

    Advantages of Selenium Application

    Selenium application reduces the risk of muscle degradation in lambs and calves, avoids exudative diathesis in poultry and avoids liver necrosis in pigs.

    Selenium Deficiency Symptoms

    ANIMALS – symptoms include white muscle disease, ill thrift, stiff lamb disease, infertility and embryonic mortality.

    Ruminants – NOTE:often animals have a “hidden hunger” for nutrients.Most observable symptoms are a sign of serious nutrient deficiency, hence a nutrient deficiency may not be observed until irreversible health damages have occurred.

    SULPHUR (Component of TNN Pasture Spray)

    Sulphur is required by plants in roughly the same amounts as phosphorous, yet deficiencies of sulphur in the soil have often gone unrecognised.This is because of the supply of sulphur in fertilisers such as superphosphates, ammonium sulphate or potassium sulphate used to correct other deficiencies.Sulphur is more often deficient in pastures than in crops, although crop responses do occur.Some cruciferous crop plants, including canola (rapeseed) and turnip, have a high requirement.Cultivation releases available sulphur from soil organic matter, making sulphur deficiency less common in crops and first year pasture sown into cultivated land.


    Sulphur is a constituent of several amino acids that are essential for building both plant and animal proteins.It is also needed to activate some enzymes and for the synthesis of chlorophyll.A shortage reduces growth and production and lowers the protein content of pasture.It can also cause a loss of baking quality in wheat flour and a lower oil content in some oilseed crops.


    These resemble the effects of nitrogen deficiency; with the foliage developing a uniform pale green to lemon colour over the entire leaf blade (the chlorosis has no interveinal or other pattern).However, the symptoms differ from nitrogen deficiency in that the young leaves become yellow (though older leaves may be yellow also).With a nitrogen deficiency yellowing always begins with and is most severe in the old leaves. When sulphur deficiency is severe and persists in clovers, the leaflets of old leaves can become very pale and die from the margins inwards.The nodules produced by sulphur deficient legumes are smaller, fewer in number, and white rather than a healthy pink colour.