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Q & A : TNN Foliar Plus Pasture Sprays

Please click on a question to find out more...

Is there any withholding period before I can graze stock on crop or pasture?

Answer :
No withholding period required for animals grazing on pasture.

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What are the major purposes of foliar fertilization?


  • To overcome the inability of the roots to supply sufficient nutrients to maintain normal growth at early growing stage:Plant roots are often not large enough to obtain enough nutrients to support the rapid growth of plants at the early growing stage.Foliar applications can help plants to successfully pass through a stage.Soil factors such as temperature and moisture may also limit the uptake of nutrients by roots and affect the growth of plants.Foliar applications obviously can overcome these problems encountered by the roots.
  • To supply enough nutrients to boost seed or fruit production:During the seed development or the fruit forming period the demand for nutrients often exceeds the ability of roots to supply these nutrients.The insufficiency of nutrients at this stage will result in fruit drops, unfilled pods or undeveloped seeds.Foliar applications at this period will help the crop to obtain sufficient nutrients and result in higher seed or fruit production.
  • To avoid the loss of nutrients in the soil environment:The application of nutrients to some types of soil may reduce their availability to the plant roots due to fixation or leaching.Application of iron to calcareous soil is one such example.In these soils foliar applications are preferred in order to avoid the reductions in availability to the plants from the soil environment.

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How does it work?

The cellular absorption (leaf absorption) of nutrients through leaves may not be much different than the absorption of the same nutrients by the roots.The major differences between the two pathways is the concentration of the nutrients applied.The nutrient solution surrounding the roots is generally very dilute.To the contrary, in foliar fertilization, the nutrient concentrations in contact with the leaves are usually much higher than could be tolerated by roots because of the evaporation of the water carrier from the leaves.Nutrient absorption by leaves must take place from this concentrated solution.

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How quickly will it work?

Regardless of the path of entry, the material used in foliar fertilization must be absorbed rapidly in order to gain the benefit of foliar fertilization.Lignosulphonates are well known for their ability to penetrate to the cells with a velocity higher than simple diffusion.Lignosulphonates, which are natural lignin chelates, have been recognised to have this same high velocity absorption factor when compared to other materials containing the same minerals, such as Fe-EDTA.

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What are "Chel" products?

These products are mineral sprays, such as Foliar Plus Pasture Spray for foliar absorption of trace elements.They are:

  • Easily absorbed by plants
  • Translocated within the plants
  • Easily decomposed within the plant so that the trace element becomes available
  • Not detrimental to plants at concentrations necessary to control deficiencies


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What are "Plex" products?

These products are mineral sprays for crops and pastures but mostly used as a soil application.They are:

  • Having high stability not easily replaced by other nutrient elements in the soil
  • Each of the metals chelated are very stable against hydrolysis
  • Trace elements chelated are resistant to micro biological decomposition
  • The chelated micronutrients are soluble in water
  • Not easily precipitated by ions or colloids in soils
  • Metal chelates are available to plants either at root surfaces or within the plant
  • Chelated micronutrients are not detrimental to plants at concentrations required to prevent deficiencies


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What are Lignosulphonates?

Lignosulphonates are natural chelating agents and are extracted from natural plant materials and modified for a uniform chelating powder for the protection of all the micronutrients.

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What is foliar fertilization?

Foliar fertilization is feeding the plant nutrients through its leaves.In recent years, foliar fertilization has gained increasing importance as a means of supplying essential nutrients, especially trace elements.Foliar application of iron, zinc, copper and manganese are often used on crops in preference to soil application, because soil uptake is poor due to the fact that these elements generally are not readily available from soil. Their availability from the soil is affected by such factors as soil pH, moisture content, organic matter, microorganisms, and other elements present in the soil.Obviously, foliar applications avoid these soil factors resulting in greater availability of these minerals to the plants.If applied properly, foliar application is frequently the most practical way to supply trace elements.

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What is Foliar Plus Pasture Spray?

Foliar Plus Pasture Spray contains essential plant nutrients in a unique Lignosulphonate chelated (“protected”) form for the correction of nutrient deficiencies – in soils, plants and animals.

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Why is Boron in Foliar Plus Pasture Spray?

Boron application can:

  • Enhance growing tissue and in turn promote new growth
  • Enhance plant structures
  • Increase oxygen transport through the plant
  • Also enhance the reproductive cycle, eventuating in improved seed set

Boron Deficiency Symptoms:

  • Plants - the major symptoms include misshapen leaf blades, “stem crack” in celery, increased diameter of the stem and petiole, water soaked areas, tip burn, shorter internodal length, retarded growth of necrosis of the terminal buds and youngest leaves, brown or blackheart in heads of vegetable crops, reduction or failure of seed and fruit set, and malformation of fruit.

Susceptible Plant Species:Lucerne, clovers, citrus, vegetables and especially tuberised plants.

Boron is an essential nutrient for plants but not for animals.Boron is essential for root tip and pollen tube elongation, the synthesis of DNA and RNA and cell division in the short apex.

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Why is Cobalt in Foliar Plus Pasture Spray?

Cobalt application can enhance the nitrogen fixation ability within legumes.It can also improve the efficiency of ruminal digestion and in turn increase the digestible energy of plant species. Cobalt Deficiency Symptoms:

  • Plants – a major indication of cobalt deficiency is small root nodules on legume species.The major symptoms are nitrogen related symptoms, hence distinguishing between cobalt and nitrogen deficiency is extremely difficult.

Susceptible Plant Species:Nitrogen fixing plant species – clover, lucerne and other legumes.

  • Ruminants – symptoms include loss of appetite, loss of body weight, leanness (emaciation), anemia, poor growth of heifers, phalaris staggers, weeping ‘rheumy’ eyes, decreased milk production, white liver disease, and “salt sick”.

An extremely important coenzyme, Vitamin B12, is synthesised by rumen microbes from dietary cobalt.Vitamin B12 coenzyme is required by methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the major metabolic pathways through which propionate and several amino acids are metabolised.Propionate, derived from fermentation of plant cellulose in the rumen, is the major source of energy in the ruminants.

NOTE: Often plants and animals have a “Hidden Hunger” for nutrients.Most observable symptoms are a sign of serious nutrient deficiency; hence a nutrient deficiency may not be observed until irreversible health damages have occurred.

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Why is Copper in Foliar Plus Pasture Spray?

Copper application can:

  • Enhance disease resistance in both plant and animal
  • Enhance photosynthesis and in turn increases digestible energy in plant species
  • Enhance legume nodulation, and in turn increases nitrogen fixation
  • Enhance seed or fruit yields
  • Enhance bone development, reproduction and lactation

Copper Deficiency Symptoms:

  • Plants - symptoms include young leaves becoming dark green, twisted or misshapen young leaves, necrotic spots, reduced seed production, white empty seed heads in grasses, delayed leaf senescence and die back diseases in orchards.

Susceptible Plant Species:Small grains, maize, vegetables, sorghum, fruit trees, ornamentals, wheat, carrots, onions and pasture species.

  • Ruminants - symptoms include “steely wool” in sheep, “swayback” in lambs, “ill-thrift” in cattle, rough coats or hair coat abnormality, milk production reduction, infertility, skeletal defects, anaemia, “falling disease” or cardiovascular disorders in cattle, bone fragility and reduced growth.

Copper is involved in at least a dozen enzymes, which catalyse oxidation type of reactions in both plant and animals.Animal requirements of copper are much greater than those required for productive plant growth.In animals copper is required for body, bone and wool growth, for pigmentation, myelination of nerve fibres and leucocyte function.In plants, copper is required for photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism, cell wall structure, growth and seed set.

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Why is foliar fertilization better than soil application?

Foliar fertilization will result in faster response and correction of nutrient deficiencies.When a deficiency of a particular nutrient is discovered in the field, a foliar application of that deficient nutrient is preferable to the soil application to correct the deficiency because it bypasses the soil environment and results in faster plant response.

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Why is it difficult to correct trace element deficiencies with inorganic salts?

The addition of water soluble sulphate salts of copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt and iron, to correct trace element deficiencies in the soil is very inefficient and sometimes dangerous, as certain soil factors tend to have the same general effect on the availability of all of them.They are;

  • High rate of leaching of the sulphate salts from the soil (especially sandy soils)
  • All tend to be less available to the plants as the soil pH is raised (liming)
  • High pH-value factors the oxidation or iron, manganese and copper and they become less soluble
  • The application of large quantities of phosphate fertilizers adversely affect the supply of trace elements.The uptake of both iron and zinc is reduced in the presence of excess phosphate.
  • On soils high in organic matter, copper appears to be bound tightly by the organic matter
  • Cobalt, zinc, manganese and iron, in water soluble form, are fixed by certain silicate clays, especially of the 2 to 1 type
  • Nutrients have antagonistic and synergistic effects on each other, eg
    1. Superphosphate enhances the availability of molybdenum (synergism)
    2. Molybdenum inhibits the availability of copper (antagonism)

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Why is Manganese in Foliar Plus Pasture Spray?

Manganese application can enhance root growth, disease resistance and photosynthesis, hence improving the viability and productivity of pastures and crops.The manganese application also avoids growth retardation in plant species.

Manganese Deficiency Symptoms:

  • Plants - symptoms can include: - (In cereals) greenish grey spots, flecks and stripes.(In legumes) interveinal chlorosis of young and middle aged leaves, yet this is not uniformly distributed over the whole leaf blade.Tissues may rapidly become necrotic and within legumes there can be seed disorders – “marsh spot” and “split seed”.

Susceptible Plant Species:Beans, lettuce, oats, onion, peas, potatoes, radish, sorgham, spinach, clover grass and wheat.

  • Animals - symptoms can include disformation of bones with enlarged joints, poor conception, delayed conception and reduced libido and fertility in males.

Manganese is essential for health growth of plants and animals.Animals require manganese for growth, reproduction and skeletal growth, and also for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.The optimal requirement for plant growth is generally greater than the dietary requirement for animals.Manganese is essential for carbohydrate metabolism and the formation of fruit.Coupled with iron, it is involved in electron transfer in the plant.Manganese is generally immobile, and often limiting in alkaline soils, where a high production of manganese is in insoluble forms.

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Why is Molybdenum in Foliar Plus Pasture Spray?

Molybdenum application can:

  • Enhance the nitrogen fixation ability within legumes
  • Enhance protein synthesis, thus increasing the plants metabolise energy
  • Enhances plant photosynthesis, thus increasing plant growth
  • Enhances the resistance against low temperature and waterlogging

Molybdenum Deficiency Symptoms

  • Plants - symptoms include tasselling, anthesis in maize, poor or delayed flowering, reduced viability of pollen tubes, reduced and irregular leaf blade formation known as “whiptail”, interveinal mottling and marginal chlorosis of the older leaves, followed by necrotic spots at leaf tips and margins, smaller root nodules, nodules white or green (instead of healthy pink) growth inhibition in legumes – yellow/pale leaves and reddish stem.

Susceptible Plant Species:Oats, legumes, radish, sorghum, wheat, onion, lettuce, cauliflower and broccoli.

  • Ruminants - other than lower reproduction capabilities, there are no explicit symptoms, as the animal needs less molybdenum to survive than the plant.Hence, animals can obtain adequate molybdenum from molybdenum deficient plants.

Molybdenum is an essential element for both animal and plant.In plants, molybdenum is required for protein synthesis through nitrate reductase.Molybdenum is also an essential element for the fixation of nitrogen by the Rhizobium bacteria in legumes.In animals, molybdenum is essential in a number of important enzymes, the oestrus cycle, animal fertility and mammary anti-carcinogenesis.

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Why is Selenium in Foliar Plus Pasture Spray?

Selenium application reduces the risk of muscle degradation in lambs and calves, avoids exudative diathesis in poultry and avoids liver necrosis in pigs.

Selenium Deficiency Symptoms:

  • Animals – symptoms include white muscle disease, ill-thrift, stiff lamb disease, infertility and embryonic mortality.

Selenium is an essential element for animals, but not plants.Selenium is essential for animal growth and also for the prevention of white muscle disease.Selenium also plays an important role in the disease resistance mechanism, being involved in the production of antibodies and the killing of unwanted microorganisms.

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Why is Zinc in Foliar Plus Pasture Spray?

Zinc application can enhance disease resistance, reproductive expression, anaerobic root respiration and photosynthesis.

Zinc Deficiency Symptoms:

  • Plants -symptoms in legume stands include shortened internodes – “rosetting”, branching of small dark green abnormally shaped leaves in the centre of the plant and decreased leaf expansion – “little leaf”.Within cereals and grasses, symptoms include chlorotic bands along the midrib or leaves combined with red, spot like discolouration, stunted growth and necrosis of older leaves.

Susceptible Plant Species:Barley, onions, beans, maize, sorghum and citrus fruit.

  • Ruminants - symptoms include crusty proliferation’s, cracking of the skin and loss of hair on the muzzle, vulva, anus, tail-head, ears, back of hind legs, knee folds, flank and neck are the main clinical signs in sheep and cattle.

Zinc is required for the function of a large number of enzymes and is essential for growth and reproduction in both plants and animals.Zinc plays a role in the formation of chlorophyll and stimulates plant growth.Zinc combines with other vitamins in the soil to form essential high-grade protein.Zinc is involved in the plant hormone system and as a catalyst for plant growth regulators.

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Can I tank mix with other chemicals?

The chemical should be specified and compatibility should be confirmed by TNN.

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Can I use it on acid soils?


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Can I use it with a pre-emergent chemical?

If pH-compatible Yes. Prior to mixing, TNN should check the compatability. Supply trade name for pre-emergent chemical.

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Can I use the same product on different crops - wheat, barley, oats, triticale, lupins, peas, canola, pasture or lucerne?

Yes. Application rate may be different, or for pulse crops and legumes, canola NPKS ratios variator may be different according to agronomist recommedations.

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Can Pasture Spray #6 be used undiluted?

The pasture spray #6 can be used undiluted only on straight soil that has been worked up. On crops and pastures the minimum rate for dilution is 1 part pasture spray #6 to 2 parts water.

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Do any of the post emergent chemicals affect the product in any way?

Tank mixing compatibility should be checked.

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What's in it?

Various formulations of NPKS, chelated lime elements, chelated micronutrients. (General - Polymer of N-amide; Polyphosphates; Lignosulphonates of K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Co, Mo, Heptonates for organic based CSRF)

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Why use Controlled Slow Release Fertilizer (CSRF)?


  • CSRF are the source of continued slow release nutrients to plants.They provide continuos long lasting feeding at a controlled optimum level for both foliar and soil applications.
  • CSRF formulations can be designed for any nutrient release rate by controlling the size of polymer chains.Standard blends contain:
    • 7.5% nutrients immediately available
    • 30-40% of nutrients available in controlled slow release form within 8-10 weeks
    • 35-45% of nitrogen is converted into soil microbes and nutrients from this source continually available through the decomposition of soil microflora
  • CSRF prevent nutrient losses through leaching, volatilisation, and immobilization (fixation, sorption) which are the greatest losses that occur with commercial fertilizers.
  • CSRF prevent nitrogen induced deficiency symptoms of micronutrients, which are usually caused by over-supply of ammonium from commercial fertilizers.
  • CSRF prevent the luxury consumption of nitrogen and potassium which upsets the plant nutrient balance.
  • CSRF prevent the over stimulation of vegetative growth caused by the overproduction of gibberellins by the plant.The controlled slow release of nitrogen allows the plant to switch from the production from gibberellins to abscisic acids which redirects the nutrients supply from the vegetative ports to fruits, tubers, etc.
  • CSRF increase the plant’s disease resistance by safeguarding balanced nutrient uptake.
  • CSRF increase the growth size and yield together with the storage life of agricultural produce.
  • CSRF safeguard the biological food value of product by providing balanced nutrient feed to plants, and by the avoidance of flush growth.
  • CSRF reduce the hazard to germinating crops when used in high rates in or near the seed row.
  • CSRF reduce the need not only for the frequency of nutrient application but also the quantity of nutrients needed for the same results.
  • CSRF safeguard the integrity of plant cell and its membranes hence the translocation of nutrients within the plants.The integrity of cell membranes are affected by nutrient inbalances mostly caused by excessive nitrogen fertilization.
  • CSRF are useful as a binding agent which apart from preventing it’s leaching can be also employed as a glue to increase pesticide uptake.
  • CSRF has an exceedingly low phytotoxicity and may be applied in low volume spraying and during the stress periods of plants.
  • CSRF eliminate the environmental concern over the excessive movement of nitrogen and other nutrients into the surface and ground waters as well as gaseous nitrogen losses into the upper atmosphere.
  • CSRF have nil or very low salt index content (0-5), therefore are suitable for both foliar and soil applications.
  • CSRF provide the necessary nitrogen for protein bodies of microbial build-up of soil organic matter decomposing organisms.These micro-organisms utilize the un-decomposed organic matter as an energy source.
  • CSRF the feeding of soil microbes results in their proliferation in the soil and the rate of organic matter decomposition is greatly increased, releasing valuable nutrients for the plants.
  • CSRF the increased organic matter decomposition also results in increased humus production which in turn enhance the soil nutrient holding capacity.This will provide a further safeguard for controlled slow release of nutrients.
  • CSRF the resultant humus production affects many fertility parameters directly and indirectly.
    • Improves soil aggregation by gluing the flocculated clay particles into porous crumbs.
    • Increases soil macro-porosity and aeration.
    • Improves water holding capacity of soil and water movement conductivity.
  • CSRF reduce the need not only for the frequency of nutrient application but also the quantity of nutrients needed for the same results.
  • CSRF safeguard the integrity of plant cell and its membranes hence the translocation of nutrients within the plants.The integrity of cell membranes are affected by nutrient imbalances mostly caused by excessive nitrogen fertilization.
  • CSRF are useful as a binding agent which apart from preventing it’s leaching can be also employed as a glue to increase pesticide uptake.
  • CSRF has an exceedingly low phytotoxicity and may be applied in low volume spraying and during the stress periods of plants.
  • CSRF eliminate the environmental concern over the excessive movement of nitrogen and other nutrients into the surface and ground waters as well as gaseous nitrogen losses into the upper atmosphere.

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